Josh Ruxin, Joan E Paluzzi, Paul A Wilson, Tozan, Margaret Kruk, Awash Teklehaimanot

With 2015 only a decade away, the poorest countries face enormous hurdles to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for health, let alone the broader goal of health for all their citizens. The MDGs all relate to health to some degree; virtually any intervention that reduces poverty and inequality will also decrease the disproportionate vulnerability to disease and injury borne by impoverished people. The UN Millennium Project established a task force concerned with the sixth goal, to “combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases” and improving access to essential medicines. Its work emphasises broad health challenges while recognising the specific threats posed by the worsening epidemics of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, which together caused an estimated 6 million deaths in 2004.

Elliott D Sclar, Pietro Garau, Gabriella Carolini

“Breathing the air in Bombay (Mumbai) now is the quivalent of smoking two and a half packs of cigarettes day.”
Alfred Knopf

One of the key 21st century challenges in population health is the challenge of improving the global urban condition.2Starting in 2007, and for the first time in human history, the majority of the world’s population will live in urban areas. According to the latest UN projections, by 2030, the world’s urban population will increase by more than two billion, while the rural population will decline by about 20 million. This shift is argely the culmination of a rapid global urbanisation process that has been underway for more than 250 years. Rapid urbanisation first became manifest in the countries undergoing industrialisation in the developed world, and then in Latin America. Today its prime locus is the poorer parts of Asia and Africa. More than 90% of the world’s urban population growth by 2030 will be in less developed regions. Any effort to measurably improve global health outcomes, especially in these regions, will need to address urban reform.

Download this file (187_PUBLIC_LANCET_5_March_2005_The_Lancet_The_21st_century_health_challenge.pdf)The 21st century health challenge of slums and cities [Millennium Project]57 kB

Caren Grown, Geeta Rao Gupta, Rohini Pande

Over the past few decades, great strides have been made in improvement of women’s health status; more than a decade has been added to life expectancy, and fertility rates in both developed and developing countries have declined substantially,1 helping to reduce burdens associated with childbirth and childrearing. Despite this progress, more than half a million women—99% of whom live in the developing world—continue to die every year in pregnancy and childbirth due to entirely preventable reasons. Additionally, amid the HIV/AIDS pandemic, women today face new and worsening health risks: 50% of all adults living with HIV/AIDS worldwide are women, and those age 15–24 years are disproportionately affected.

In the early 1990s, a subset of the health sector— patented drugs—burst quite unexpectedly into the international trade debate. The ongoing trade negotiations of the Uruguay Round were in disarray, and support from sectors that relied on the protection of intellectual property rights became essential to move them forward.1 Indeed, the Uruguay Round Agreement was signed in 1994 only because it included a then much praised Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) agreement.

Download this file (092_PUBLIC_LANCET_26_March_2005_The_Lancet_Trade_drugs_and_health.pdf)Trade, drugs, and health-care services[Millennium Project]45 kB

Pedro A Sanchez, M S Swaminathan

worldwide. Various dimensions of malnutrition (eg, underweight, zinc deficiency, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency) account for seven of the 13 leading risk factors associated with the global burden of diseases. For both children and adults, malnutrition reduces the body’s natural defences against a vast range of diseases. The death rate from diseases such as lower respiratory infection, malaria, and measles, which account for a large proportion of children’s deaths, are much higher in children who are underweight or have specific nutrient deficiencies than in those who are not. Undernourished people infected with HIV/AIDS develop the full symptoms of the disease more quickly than people who are well fed. Yet one of the earliest side-effects of AIDS is reduced consumption of food in affected households.

The Millennium Development Goals have become an international standard against which to assess trends in development and human well being. Their adoption in 2000 coincided with two important factors: the growing recognition of the role of science and technology in solving human problems, and the emergence of new infectious diseases. These developments have helped to define biomedical research as one of the most critical public policy issues facing the global community. The state of human health in much of the developing world continues to decline at a time when the world’s fund of biomedical knowledge continues to expand. This challenge offers new opportunities for promoting international cooperation in biomedical research of relevance to developing countries as outlined in the report of the Millennium Project Task Force on Science, Technology and Innovation.1 Addressing health challenges of the developing world will require new forms of international partnerships that take into account emerging opportunities in the globalisation of scientific knowledge.

J D Sachs, J W McArthur

This year marks a pivotal moment in international efforts to fight extreme poverty. During the United Nations (UN) Millennium Summit in 2000, 147 heads of state gathered and adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, panel 1) to address extreme poverty in its many dimensions—income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion—while promoting education, gender equality, and environmental sustainability, with quantitative targets set for the year 2015. The UN committed to reviewing progress towards the goals in 2005, recognising that by this time only a decade would be left to fulfil the MDGs.

Sobre a REDE-TB

A Rede Brasileira de Pesquisa em Tuberculose (REDE-TB) é uma Organização Não Governamental (ONG) de direito privado sem fins lucrativos, preocupada em auxiliar no desenvolvimento não só de novos medicamentos, novas vacinas, novos testes diagnósticos e novas estratégias de controle de TB, mas também na validação dessas inovações tecnológicas, antes de sua comercialização no país e/ou de sua implementação nos Programa de Controle de TB no País.




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