Michael Eisenhuta,f,∗, Shantini Paranjothyb,f, Ibrahim Abubakare,f, Sam Bracebridged,f, Mike Lilley c,f, Rohinton Mullaa,f, Kay Lackc,f, Denise Chalkleyf,g, Marian McEvoyc,f

Aims: To investigate whether BCG vaccination, in addition to a reduction of active tuberculosis, leads to a reduction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection during an outbreak of tuberculosis.

Download this file (632_PUB_Art_Eisenhut_Vaccine_2009.pdf)632_PUB_Art_Eisenhut_Vaccine_2009.pdf[ ]280 kB


The advent of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) provides new options for detection of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). This is particularly relevant to healthcare workers (HCWs), who are at higher risk of infection, but who have often also been vaccinated. In this article, we discuss the role of IGRAs for the diagnosis of LTBI in various healthcare settings. A search was performed for studies that reported data on IGRAs in HCWs in the last 18 years. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. IGRAs showed poor agreement with the tuberculin skin test (TST), except in countries with high incidences of tuberculosis (TB), but generally correlated better with markers of exposure to TB including during contact investigation. The T-SPOT.TB assay has not been adequately assessed in HCWs; the few studies available showed enhanced specificity of T-SPOT.TB when compared to TST. This review confirms the utility of IGRAs as important tools in the prevention and control of tuberculosis in healthcare settings.

TDRnews June 2009

Evaluating diagnostics Introducing evidence-based measures to an unregulated world

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are an invaluable way to quickly and cheaply diagnose diseases in developing countries, where facilities to carry out traditional laboratory diagnosis may be few and far between. The tremendous growth in RDT products and the lack of regulatory oversight in developing countries have led to a proliferation of low-quality products, as well as uniformed or inappropriate use.

2009 Edition


Tuberculosis is a serious re-emerging infectious disease. An estimated 10-15 million United States (US) citizens have latent tuberculosis infections, and without detection and treatment, approximately 10% of these individuals will develop tuberculosis at some point in their lives. Costly tuberculosis outbreaks still occur. The growing threat of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) TB not only leads to increased cases of tuberculosis but also increased costs. Tuberculosis-related healthcare costs approach $1 billion each year in the US.

Luu Thi Lien1., Nguyen Thi Le Hang2., Nobuyuki Kobayashi3, Hideki Yanai4, Emiko Toyota5, Shinsaku Sakurada6, Pham Huu Thuong1, Vu Cao Cuong7, Akiko Nanri8, Tetsuya Mizoue8, Ikumi Matsushita6, Nobuyuki Harada9, Kazue Higuchi9, Le Anh Tuan10, Naoto Keicho6*

1 Hanoi Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Hospital, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 2 International Medical Center of Japan - Bach Mai Hospital (IMCJ-BMH) Medical Collaboration Center, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 3 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Toyama Hospital, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 4 Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan, 5 Department of Respiratory Diseases, NHO Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, 6 Department of Respiratory Diseases, Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 7 General Planning Department, Hanoi Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Hospital, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 8 Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 9 Department of Mycobacterium Reference and Research, Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Tokyo, Japan, 10 Hanoi Department of Health, Hanoi, Viet Nam

Download this file (617_PUB_Art_Lien_PLoS_One_2009.pdf)617_PUB_Art_Lien_PLoS_One_2009.pdf[ ]166 kB

Rethabile Khutlang, Sriram Krishnan, Ronald Dendere, Andrew Whitelaw, Konstantinos Veropoulos, Genevieve Learmonth, and Tania S Douglas, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—Screening for tuberculosis in low- and middle-income countries is centred on the microscope. We present methods for the automated identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in images of Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smears obtained using a bright field microscope. The publication of quantitative results on the classification of bacilli has, to date, concentrated on images of auramine stained sputum smears obtained using fluorescence microscopy. We segment candidate bacillus objects using a combination of pixel classifiers; the algorithm produces results that agree well with manual segmentations, as judged by the Hausdorff distance and the modified Williams index. The extraction of geometric transformation invariant features and optimization of the feature set by feature subset selection and Fisher transformation follow.

Download this file (648_PUB_Art_Khutlang_IEEE_2009.pdf)648_PUB_Art_Khutlang_IEEE_2009.pdf[ ]739 kB

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